Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis


NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS CURRICULUM SUPPORT


History


Wallace and Bruce


Booklet 1


The succession crisis


[ACCESS 3]





The Scottish Qualifications Authority regularly reviews the arrangements for National Qualifications. Users of all NQ support materials, whether published by Learning and Teaching Scotland or Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis others, are reminded that it is their responsibility to check that the support materials correspond to the requirements of the current arrangements.


Acknowledgement

Learning and Teaching Scotland gratefully acknowledges this contribution to the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis National Qualifications support programme for History.


© Learning and Teaching Scotland 2007


This resource may be reproduced in whole or in part for educational purposes by educational establishments in Scotland provided that Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis no profit accrues at any stage.


Contents


Introduction 4


Topic 1: King Alexander III and his family 5


Topic 2: The Maid of Norway 6

  1. Problems 6

  2. An English marriage 8

  3. The death of the Maid of Norway 10


Topic 3: King Edward and the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis succession crisis 12

  1. Edward’s secret plan 12

  2. King Edward at Norham 14

  3. The great cause 16

  4. The award of Berwick 18


The succession crisis: final activities 20




Introduction


What am I going to find out about Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis?


 what happened to King Alexander III of Scots


 the Maid of Norway and the problems she caused


 how Edward of England interfered in Scotland.


^ Topic 1: King Alexander III and his family


In 1285 King Alexander Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis III married for a second time. His first wife and all of their children had died. He had one infant grand-daughter, Margaret the Maid of Norway, but Alexander wanted more children. In Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis particular, he wanted a son to be king after him.


However, there was a terrible storm one night while he was going home, King Alexander got lost, fell over a cliff Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis and was killed.


His grand-daughter, Margaret the Maid of Norway, was to be the next ruler of Scotland.


Activities


1. What happened to King Alexander III?





2. What had happened to his children?





3. Who was to be Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis the next ruler of Scotland?





Topic 2: The Maid of Norway


2(a): Problems




Alexander III’s grand-daughter, the Maid of Norway, was only three years old. At that time many children died. She Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis might die.


She was too young to rule. Somebody would have to rule Scotland until she grew up. There might be an argument about who got the job of Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis ruling for the Maid.


There was another argument about whether females could rule because they could not lead an army in battle. Besides, there could be trouble about finding a suitable husband Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis because he would rule Scotland with her.


Activities


One problem about the Maid – being a child.


1. How old was the Maid of Norway?








2. Write down two reasons why her age caused problems.











Another problem Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis about the Maid – being female.


3. Write down two reasons why being a girl caused problems.










2(b): An English marriage


The Scots thought that they had solved their problem in 1290, when they agreed that the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis Maid of Norway would marry the eldest son of King Edward of England.


Many Scots said that this was a good idea because King Edward was a powerful ruler. He could Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis stop any trouble breaking out in Scotland.


However, some Scots worried that Scotland would become a part of England.


Activities


1. Who was the Maid of Norway going to marry?





2. Why did the Scots think this Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis was a good idea?











3. Why did some Scots worry about this marriage?





In 1290, the Scots мейд a marriage treaty with King Edward called the Treaty of Birgham. This treaty was Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis very like the contracts modern film stars and other rich people sign before they get married.


The aim of the treaty was to make sure that Scotland never became a part Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis of England.


Both sides agreed that the two countries would always be kept separate.


Activities


4. What was the aim of the Treaty of Birgham?





5. What did the two countries agree in this treaty?








2(c Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis): The death of the Maid of Norway


Margaret, the Maid of Norway, died in the Orkney Isles while she was on her way to Scotland.


Nobody was sure who Scotland’s next ruler Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis would be.


People were worried that powerful Scottish nobles would start fighting each other about who would be the next king.


This problem was so big, it was called a ‘crisis Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis’.


Scottish leaders asked King Edward of England to come and help them. He was a powerful king and he had helped the Scots before. They were delighted when Edward agreed to help Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis.


Activities


1. What happened to the Maid of Norway?





2. What was the problem about who would rule next?


3. Who did the Scots ask to help to solve this problem?








4. Write down two reasons why they Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis asked him.








Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis


3(a): Edward’s secret plan.




King Edward had plans of his own for Scotland. He planned to take it over!


 He had been trying to find Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis proof that Scotland was really a part of England.


 He had organised his army to go to Scotland.


 He had organised a fleet of ships to go to Scotland.


 He had Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis gathered money to pay for a war in Scotland.


Activities


1. What did King Edward plan to do with Scotland?





2. Write down four things to show that King Edward planned to take over Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis Scotland.


















3. Why had the Scots invited King Edward to help them? (Look back to your answer to question 4 on Page 11)








4. What was King Edward really planning to do?








5. Why would the Scots be surprised Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis about King Edward’s plans?








3(b): King Edward at Norham





King Edward met the Scots at Norham, where he told them that he was the ‘overlord’ of Scotland. (Overlord means Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis being the ‘boss’ of the Scottish king.) He wanted to Scots to agree that he was their overlord.


The Scots were astonished. But, they saw King Edward had his army with him. They Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis were frightened to say ‘No!’ to him.


Instead, they said that only a Scottish ruler could agree with Edward. Then, they said that because Scotland didn’t have a ruler Edward Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis could not get an answer! The Scots thought they had tricked King Edward.


Activities


1. What does the word ‘overlord’ mean?





2. Why were the Scots frightened to say ‘No!’ to King Edward?


3. What did Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis the Scots say instead?





King Edward was too smart for the Scots. He had a second plan!


He spoke to the men who thought they should be king. These men were known as Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis ‘the Competitors’.


King Edward got every one of the Competitors to agree that he was overlord of Scotland.


As well as this, the Competitors also agreed to give King Edward control of the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis main castles of Scotland until he decided which Competitor was to be king.


In that way, King Edward was able to take over Scotland.


Activities


1. Who were ‘the Competitors’?





2. Who did King Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis Edward persuade to agree he was overlord?


3. What else did King Edward do to take control of Scotland?





3(c): The great cause


After the Scots agreed he was their overlord, King Edward Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis listened to what the 13 Competitors had to say in a court of law.


This court case is knows as ‘the Great Cause’.


Although 13 people claimed to be King of Scots, there were really only two Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis serious competitors; John Balliol and Robert Bruce. It was really just a ‘two-horse race’.


Both men were descended from David, Earl of Huntingdon who had been a great-uncle of King Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis Alexander III.


David, Earl of Huntingdon




Margaret Isabella




Devorgilla Robert Bruce




John Balliol


Margaret was the eldest daughter. She was the grand-mother of John Balliol. So, John Balliol said he should be king Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis because he came from the oldest part of the family.


Isabella was the second daughter. She was the mother of Robert Bruce. That meant he was a grandson of Earl David. Bruce Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis said that a grandson was more ‘royal’ than a great-grandson so he should be king.


King Edward decided that John Balliol should be king because he was descended from the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis eldest daughter.

Activities


1. Copy the diagram showing the family of David, Earl of Huntingdon.


2. Who were the two most important men claiming the crown? Beside each man’s name, write down why he thought he Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis should be King.


Competitor 1





Reason he should be king








Competitor 2





Reason he should be king


3. Which man did King Edward decide should be king?





3(d): The award of Berwick


King Edward announced Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis his final decision at Berwick so it is known as ‘The Award of Berwick’.


After that, John Balliol was crowned on St Andrew’s Day (30 November) 1292.




At that time, Scottish rulers were not ‘crowned Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis’. Instead, they were мейд to sit down on a special stone called ‘The Stone of Destiny’. This is what King John Balliol did.


King John then went to England where Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis he publicly agreed that King Edward was ‘Overlord of Scotland’.


John Balliol then did ‘homage’ to King Edward.


This was a very important ceremony. When people did ‘homage’ they promised to obey Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis their king. If they ever broke that promise, they were in serious trouble. A man who broke his oath of homage could be killed and all his belongings would be taken by the Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis king.


After this ceremony, King Edward gave King John the keys of the Scottish castles.


King John was now in charge of Scotland.


Or, so he thought!

Activities


1. What was ‘The Award of Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis Berwick’?





2. What ceremony мейд King John King of Scots?


3. What was ‘homage’?


4. What happened if you broke your ‘homage’?








5. What did King Edward give to King John after he had given him Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis homage?





The succession crisis: final activities


Which happened first?


1. Look back at your answers to put these pairs of sentences in the correct order.


1(a) The Maid of Norway became ruler of Scotland Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis.

(b) King Alexander III died.


2(a) The Maid of Norway died.

(b) The Maid of Norway was to marry King Edward’s son.


3(a) The Scots were not sure about who would be Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis the next ruler of Scotland.

(b) The Scots asked King Edward of England to help them to decide who would be the King of Scots.


4(a) King Edward told the Scots that he Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis was overlord of Scotland.

(b) King Edward met the Scots at Norham.


5(a) King Edward took control of all the important castles in Scotland.

(b) King Edward got the ‘Competitors’ to Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis agree he was overlord of Scotland.


6(a) King Edward decided that John Balliol was King of Scots.

(b) King Edward listened to what John Balliol and Robert Bruce had to say Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis.


7(a) John Balliol was crowned on St Andrew’s Day 1292.

(b) King Edward announced his decision in the ‘Award of Berwick’.


8(a) King Edward gave King John the keys to all the main castles Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis in Scotland.

(b) John Balliol did homage to King Edward.


^ A Challenge!


Try this if you like!


After you have put the pairs of sentences in the correct order,

decide Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis whether the pair of sentences can be connected by the words


‘and afterwards’

or

‘therefore’.


Source A was written by Bishop Fraser to King Edward of England while he waited for the Maid of Norway Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis to arrive at Perth.


Source A

There is a rumour that the Maid of Norway has died in Orkney.


When Robert Bruce heard this rumour, he started gathering his army and came to Perth Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis. The Earl of Mar and the Earl of Athol are also gathering their men. People are frightened that a war might start.


I have just heard that the Maid Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis has recovered but that she is still very weak. I have decided to send two knights to Orkney to find out what has happened.


2. Write down two pieces of evidence from Source A which show Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis that Bishop Fraser was not sure about what had happened to the Maid.










3. Explain why Source A is useful evidence about what happened when people thought the Maid of Norway had Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis died.


A Source A is a Primary Source


B Source A is a Secondary Source


C The purpose of Source A is to tell King Edward what was happening.


D The purpose of Source A Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis is to tell Robert Bruce to start a war.


E Source A gives us useful information about how the Maid of Norway was gathering an army.


F Source A gives us Topic 3: King Edward and the succession crisis useful information about how Robert Bruce was gathering an army.





Write a letter in each of the boxes.


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