TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения...

^ TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY
TEXT A. INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS IN GREAT BRITAIN

England is a highly developed industrial country. The city of London is one of the World's three leading financial centres along with New York TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and by far the biggest in Europe The Bank of England is the commercial pulse of the city of London while Greater London is important for products of all TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... kings in cluding food, instrument engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, clothing, furniture and printing. It has some heavy engineering plants and several leading research establishments65. London is a great port with many TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... docks.

North-west of London, in the midland counties (the Mid­lands) is a very important industrial district which is known as the "Black country". In Birmingham, the centre of this area, and in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the manufacturing towns nearby, various goods are produced: machine tools, tubes, domestic metalware, rubber products, etc. The largest coal and iron fields in Britain are located in the Midlands. Further north TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... is Manchester, one of the main centres for electrical and heavy engineering and for me production of a wide range of goods including computers, electronic equipment, petrochemicals, dye-stuffs and pharma­ceuticals. The Manchester TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... Ship Canal links Manchester with Liverpool, one of Britain's leading seaports.

East of Manchester is the city of Sheffield, well-known for its manufacture of high quality steels, tools TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and cutlery. A short railway journey to the north-east will take you from Manchester to Bradford, the commercial centre of the wool trade.

Further north is Newcastle situated on the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... North Sea coast, a city famous for its shipbuilding yards and its export of coal.

What is remarkable about the second half of the 20th century is the accelerating pace of change.

The Scottish TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... economy has moved away from the tradi­tional industries of coal, steel and shipbuilding. North-east Scotland is now the centre of offshore oil and gas industries. There has been a significant development TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... in high-technology industries, such as chemicals, electronic engineering and in­formation technology. In Scotland, the richest part is that of the Lowlands. Here there are coal and iron fields TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения.... Glasgow is the largest city, seaport and trading centre of Scotland.

Recent decades have seen fundamental changes in the Welsh economy. Wales is an important centre for consumer electronics, information technology, chemicals TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., and food and drink.

Although Britain is a densely populated, industrialized country, agriculture is still one of its most important indus­tries. Dairying is most common in the west of England, where the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... wetter climate encourages the growth of good grass. Sheep and cattle are reared in the hilly and moorland areas of northern and south-western England. Its best farm­land lies TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... in the south-eastern plains.

The south of England is rural, with many fertile valleys, well-cultivated fields and pastures.

The south-eastern coast is well-known for its picturesque scenery and TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... mild climate and a number of popular resorts. On the southern coast of England there are many large ports, among them: Southampton, Portsmouth, Plymouth.

^ TEXT B. THE ENGLISH LANDSCAPE

— I know that there are many types TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of natural scenery in England. But what is there in the English landscape that strikes the eye of the stranger used to other countries?

— Its "park-like" appearance, I TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... believe. England in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.66

— But as far as I know the hedges take up a consider­able part of soil TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... suitable for ploughing.

— They do. But the Englishman loves the green of En­gland with its hedges, tender-green in spring, covered with leaf and flower in summer, a blaze TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of gold and red in autumn. In winter too they are still beautiful with a few scarlet berries almost burning in the frost.

— And yet, if England swept away her hedges TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and put in their place fences the saving of land would be enormous.

— But much of the park-like beauty of the countryside would be gone and with it the peculiar character of the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... En­glish landscape.

— I hear there are a lot of lovely gardens all along the English countryside. Are English people fond of gardening?

— They are. Almost every one in England tries TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... to come in touch with a bit of plant life. In the East of London you may see workingman's "flats" with their window gardens. In the West End, land which TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... is worth many thousands of pounds per acre is devoted to garden use. In the small suburban vil­las a very considerable tax of money and labour is paid in the effort to keep TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... in good order a little pocket handkerchief of lawn and a few shrubs.

— Well, I think that this proves that the Englishman is at heart a great lover of nature, though TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... he is supposed to be such a prosaic and practical person.

^ TEXT C. LOOKING AT THE MAP OF RUSSIA

— I'd like you to tell me something about your country.

— I think the best TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... way to get a general idea of a country is to study the map. It's lucky I've got one with me. Here it is.

— Perhaps we had better TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... start with the physical outline of the country.

— Well, Russia can be divided roughly into two main re­gions — the highlands in the east and the lowlands covering the greater part of the country TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., with a long mountain range cutting it into two unequal parts.

— You mean the Urals. They form the natural border be­tween Europe and Asia. But the highest mountain chains, as TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... far as I can see are situated in the south and the south-east of the country. What do you call them?

— The Caucasus, between the Caspian and the Black Sea and the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... Altai in Asia.

— I'd love to go there. My hobby is mountaineering. But our mountains are not so high as yours, as far as I know.

— I believe they TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... are not We have peaks four and a half miles high. But we also have lowlands several hundred feet below sea level. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midlands TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., tundra and taiga in the north.

— What are the "steppes"?

— They are treeless plains covered with grass. The soil is fertile there.

— And is the tundra like our heather moors?

— Not in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the least. It's a kind of frozen desert in the Arc­tic region.

— And what is the 'taiga', I wonder?

— It's a thick coniferous forest stretching to the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... south of the tundra. It's rich in animals, valued for their fur like sa­ble, fox, squirrel.

— I'd like to go hunting there, but I'm afraid I would never be able TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... to stand toe cold.

— Our climate is also varied. In the south-west the weather is usually mild and wet; northern Asia is one of the coldest places on earth, and TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... in the south the heat is unbear­able. But in the middle of the country the climate is moder­ate and continental.

— Well, it has been very interesting for me to TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... hear all those things. Thank you very much for your information.

Memory Work

England! with all thy faults, I love thee still,

I said at Calais, and have not forgot it

I like the taxes when TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... they're not too many;

I like a sea-coal fire, when not too dear;

I like a beef-steak, too, as well as any;

Have no objection to a TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... pot of beer;

I like the weather when it is not rainy,

That is, I like two months of every year. George Byron

^ ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (П)

Words

border n hedge n, υ resort n TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... cattle n

level n rural adj chemicals n machinery n

steppe n cotton n moderate adj stretch υ, n

desert n pasture n taiga n dock n

peak n tool n fence n picturesque adj

tundra n TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... fertile adj range n vast adj

financial adj raw adj

Word Combinations

information technology densely (thinly) populated consumer electronics

shipbuilding yards highly developed trading centre

coal (iron) fields rural district offshore oil industry

rich TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... in (smth.) heavy (light) engineering moderate (mild) climate

^ Proper Names

the Avon Dublin the North Sea

Belfast Eire the Pennines

Birmingham Glasgow Portsmouth

the Bristol Channel the Grampians the Severn

the Cambrians the Hebrides Sheffield

the Cheviot Hills the Orkney TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... Islands Southampton

the Clyde the Shetland Islands the Strait of Dover

the Cumbrians Ireland the Tyne

Leeds the Thames

Manchester

the Mersey

Newcastle

EXERCISES
^ I. Study Texts A and В and a) transcribe the words below:
petrochemicals, commerce, fertile TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., engineering, iron, in­dustry, equipment, moderate, resort, pharmaceuticals, dairy­ing, rear, rural, picturesque, meadow, ploughing, acre.
b) Transcribe the geographical names used in Text A, II, Pick out front Text A TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... English equivalents of the following:
высокоразвитая промышленная страна, ведущий денежный центр, тяжелое машиностроение, каменноугольный бассейн, элект­ронное оборудование, судостроительные верфи, ускоряющийся темп перемен, разработки в сверхтехнологичном производстве, добыча нефти в открытом море, информационная разработка TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., бытовая элек­троника, страна с высочайшей плотностью населения, земледелие, хими­ческие продукты из нефтяного сырья, сельскохозяйственный район, злачные равнины, отлично обработанные поля, красочный пей­заж, мягенький климат, престижные курорты.
^ III TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения.... Writte questions about Text A, using the words and phrases from Ex. II. Prepare to discuss the text (Use he map.) IV. Read Text С and pick-out English squivalents of the following TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... phrases:
получить общее представление о чём-n., иметь при для себя что-л., создавать естественную границу, как я понимаю, мое лю­бимое занятие (мой конек), как мне понятно, ниже уровня моря, ни в TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... коей мере, непереносимый.
^ V. Retell Text С in indirect speech. Try and give an additional piece of information on the topic. VI. Fill in Use weirds bolder, boundary or frontier. Choose the correct TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... alternative.
Note: The Russian word граница has several equivalents in English: border — пограничная зона либо полоса по обе стороны демаркационной полосы, е.g. The people living on the border TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of two adjoining countries usually speak the languages of both.; boundary — граница как разграничительная ли­ния, предел, е.g. This stream forms a boundary between the two farms.; fron­tier — граница как TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... демаркационная линия, муниципальная граница, е. д, to pass the frontiers, и как пограничная зона либо район (в отличие от border) толь­ко по одну сторону демаркационной полосы, е.g. to guard the frontiers, frontier TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... station, fortress, incident, dispute,

1. When we went camping, we put up our tents on the ... of the lake. 2. The ... incident was reported by the newspapers in detail. 3. A ... dispute is a quarrel about TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... where a ... is or ought to be. 4. The river formed a ... between these rural dis­tricts. 5. The half-ruined tower used to be a ... fortress. 6. The region along the boundary between England TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and Scotland is called the ... . 7. A hedge is a fence or a row of bushes or low trees, which are planted to form a ... round a garden or field. 8. Great Britain TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения...'s .... northern, eastern and southern, are formed by seas and oceans.
^ VII. Study Text С and use it as a model for a talk between an Englishman and a Russian who TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... is on his first visit to England. VIII. Fill in the words north, west east, south, or their derivatives:
1. The ... half of our country consists mainly of low plains, while the greater part TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of the ... half of Russia is cov­ered with mountain chains. 2. In Siberia the biggest rivers are the Ob, the Yenissei and the Lena. They flow ... through a vast area parallel TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... to one another. 3. The climate contrasts are quite striking in Russia. You can find the ... braving the frosts that reach 70 degrees below zero Centigrade and at one and the same time the ... basking TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... In the sun on ... sea­shores lined with green palms. 4. The Leningrad region lies to the ... of Moscow. 5. A ... is a person who lives in the ... and a ... is one TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... who lives in the ... . 6. Devon and Cornwall are situated on the ... peninsula of England.
^ IХ. Supply articles where necessary:
There is no other country in ... world whose nature is more varied than that TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of ... Russia. ... western half of ... country consists mainly of... low plains. The country is divided into two parts by ... Ural mountains.... greater part of ... eastern half is covered with vast plateaus TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and mountain chains. Here, on ... Kamchatka Peninsula ... biggest active volcanoes of ... Old World are located.

In ... south ... plains of ... western half of ... country are bounded by... huge mountain ranges. Here are ... country's highest peaks TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения....

Many of ... rivers of... Russia are among ... world's great­est ... most important rivers of ... western plain are ... Volga, ... Western Dvina,... Don and ... Northern Dvina.

In ... Far East... Amur flows into ... Pacific TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения....

In ... lakes, too, our country is extremely rich. Among them are ... world's greatest lake ... Caspian Sea and ... deepest — ... lake Baikal.
^ X. Discuss the following topics (use the map TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения...):
1. English scenery and climate.

2. Agricultural districts of England.

3. The most important industrial regions in England.

4. Physical background of Russia.

5. The surface of Russia.

6. The climate of Russia.

Note: Evaluate these talks according to their TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... information content: amount and quality of information.
^ XI. Supply prepositions where necessary:
Our motherland is immense. It's ... far the largest and richest country both ... Asia and Europe. Its frontier TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... line is the longest... the world.

Natural conditions ... Russia vary greatly. If you cross Russia ... the extreme North ... the South you will get a good idea ... the climate contrasts, to say nothing ... the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... difference ... scenery and vegetation, characteristic ... various geographical zones. Siberia unlike ... the Urals, the face ... Ta-tary differs ... that... the Caucasus. One region is rich ... one thing, another is rich ... another.

Perhaps no TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... country's geographic location has played such ah important part... its history as Russia's. Half... Eu­rope and half... Asia, its history has revolved ... this basic fact.
XII. 1. Describe the scenery TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., climate and industries of your home town, region or republic. 2. Choose four slides or postcards and give a commen­tary on them. With the first picture, concentrate on describing what there is in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the picture. With the second one try to give the position of things accurately. You can use the third one for talking about how and when the picture was taken TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения.... And the last one can be the starting point for a story or joke. (See "Classroom English" Section V.) ^ XIII. Finish up the sentences according to the model. (Consult a diction­ary.):
Englishmen live in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... England, they speak English.

... in Scotland,.... ... in Ireland, .... ... in Sweden, ....

... in Norway, .... ... in Denmark,.... ... in Holland, ...

... in Spain, ... ... in the USA, .... ... in Switzerland,....
^ XIV. Make up dialogues between an English TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and a Russian student on the topics:
1. Moscow and London — cultural and industrial centres.

2. The main industrial centres (towns, ports, etc.) of Rus­sia and England.

3. Rural areas of both countries.
XV. Translate the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... following, putting it into your own words:
a) express your opinion;

b) say how far factors like climate, the geography of a country, its history, religion(s), system of government TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., etc affect national character. Give examples.

с) write some brief notes about your own national character as yon think foreigners see yon. Then, in small groups, describe to each other this "foreign" view TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of your nation and say why you agree or disagree with it.

^ Английский нрав

Государственный нрав всюду живуч. Но ни к какому наро­ду это не относится в основном, чем к TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... британцам, которые судя по всему, имеют нечто вроде патента на живучесть собственной на­туры. Такая 1-ая и более тривиальная черта британцев. Ста­бильность и всепостоянство их нрава. Они меньше других под­вержены TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... веяниям времени, преходящим модам. Принципиально, но, выделить, что при собственной стабильности нрав этот составлен из очень противоречивых и даже феноминальных черт, одни из которых очень явны, другие же трудноуловимы; так что каж­дое обобщение, касающееся TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... британцев здесь же может быть оспорено.

Материалистический люд — кто усомнится в этом? — англи­чане дали миру щедрую долю мистиков, поэтов, идеалистов. Люд колонистов, они проявляют пылкую приверженность к собствен­ной стране TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., к собственному дому.

Неутомимые мореходы и землепроходцы, они одновре­менно страстные садоводы.

Их любознательность позволила им познакомиться с наилучшим из того, чем владеют другие страны, и все-же они остались вер­ны собственной TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... своей. Восхищаясь французской кухней, англича­нин не станет имитировать ее у себя дома. На уникальность законопос­лушный люд они любят читать о грехах и насилиях. Являя собой воплощение конформизма, они TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... в то же время заяд­лые индивидуалисты, и посреди их много эксцентриков.

Все эти парадоксы, к которым, пожалуй, следует добавить очередной: при всей собственной парадоксальности британский нрав ред­ко бывает таинственным и непредсказуемым.

^ Генри TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения.... Стил Коммаыджер (США), Британия очами янки. 1974

Я не пробую утверждать, как будто британцы никогда не меня­лись. Перемены происходят всегда. Но эти различия, настолько замет­ные снаружи, не попадают вглубь, до TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... корней. К наилучшему либо к худшему, извечные черты британской натуры как и раньше оста­ются некоторым общим знаменателем, оказывают глубочайшее воздействие на государственный нрав и общий образ жизни.

Джон Б. Пристли TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... (Великобритания), Британцы, 1973
^ XVI, Comment on the following proverbs and sayings. (Explain their meaning, give their Russian equivalents.):
East or West, home is best. There is no place like home.

So many countries, so TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... many customs. When at Rome, do as the Romans do.

Rome was not built in a day. To carry coals to Newcastle.
^ ХVII. Read the following passage and a) discuss TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... it in detail; b) give a short summary of the passage; c) comment on the following:
the beauty of Britain as the author sees it;

the variety of geographical features;

a happy compromise between TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... Nature and Man.

We live in one of the most beautiful islands in the world. This is a fact we are always forgetting. When beautiful islands are mentioned we think TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of Trinidad67 and Tahiti.68 These are fine, romantic places, but they are not really as exquisitely beautiful as our own Britain. Before the mines and factories came, and long before we went from bad to TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... worse with our ar­terial roads and petrol stations and horrible brick bungalows, this country must have been an enchantment. Even now, after we have been busy for so long flinging TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... mud at this fair pale face, the enchantment still remains. Sometimes I doubt if we deserve to possess it. There can be few parts of the world in which commercial greed TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and public indifference have com­bined to do more damage than they have here. The process continues. It is still too often assumed that any enterprising fellow after quick profits has TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... a perfect right to destroy a love­liness that is the heritage of the whole community.

The beauty of our country is as hard to define as it is easy to enjoy. Remembering other and TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... larger countries we see at once that one of its charms is that it is immensely var­ied within a small compass. We have here no vast mountain ranges TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., no illimitable plains. But we have superb variety. A great deal of everything is packed into little space. I suspect that we are always faintly conscious of the fact that this is a TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... smallish island, with the sea always round the corner, We know that everything has to be neatly packed into a small space. Nature, we feel, has carefully adjusted things — mountains, plains TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., rivers, lakes to the scale of the island itself. A mountain 12,000 feet high would be a horrible mon­ster here, as wrong as a plain 400 miles long, a river as broad as the Mississippi; Though TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the geographical features of this island are comparatively small, and there is astonish­ing variety almost everywhere, that does not mean that our mountains are not mountains, our plains TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... not plains.

Our children and their children after them must live in a beautiful country. It must be a country happily compromis­ing between Nature and Man, blending what was best, worth retaining from the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... past with what best represents the spirit of our own age, a country rich in noble towns as it is in trees, birds, and wild flowers. (From "The Beauty of Britain TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..." by J. В. Priestley)
^ XVIII. Role-playing:
Mr. Nice, a lecturer, in his early forties. His topic:

"Don't Spoil Nature".

The audience: Alex, a sceptically-minded young man of TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... 21, a student of Geography; Miss Dorothy Peach, an ardent lover of nature, age 73;

Mr. Frederick Healey, a journalist work ing on a popular newspaper, middle-aged.

Rest of class: make offers and TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... suggestions relating to the problem.

^ Don't Spoll Nature

Both in densely and in thinly populated countries the au­thorities make regulations and give hints to would-be tour­ists to protect the countryside TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... from pollution.

Here's what the Tourist Office of Finland advises would be visitors: While you are enjoying the uniqueness of the Finnish landscape, the forests, the lakes, the rivers, the seas, the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... wild life and vegetation, you should obey the unwritten laws of nature. Sheer carelessness and thoughtlessness can cause great damage. As you travel about, please remember you are a guest in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the Finnish countryside.

It is forbidden to break off branches of trees and bushes. Picking flowers (except protected species) is allowed. When you travel by car please avoid throwing litter and rubbish about. Put TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... it in plastic bags and take it to the next place where waste is collected. In Lapland, the beauty of the land­scape is extremely fragile and easily damaged. Remember TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... that it can take over 200 years for the tracks left by your car to disappear.

Although it may be tempting to drive over moors of Lap­land you must always keep to TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the roads. Because the climate in Lapland is so cold, metal glass and plastic waste remain unchanged for centuries.

Suggested phrases: ^ Right, can we begin, then, do you think? Can you all hear TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... me at the back! Good, that's fine. I'm going to talk about: as you know; anyhow. — I'd just like to run through the main points... The first thing of TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... course, is... And on top of that... Now has anybody got any points he'd like to raise? Now, that's a good question. The thing here is — er we've thought a TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... lot about this one. I think that's it then. Thanks very much for your attention.
^ XIX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film Segment 7 "How do I Get to TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения......?" (Sallsbury), a) Watch and lislen, b) Do the exercises from the film.
STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

VII

In its broadest sense any meaningful piece of written prose marked for its unity, content and message TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... may be called a composition, that is a unit of written communication involving a writer, a message and a reader.

Between the sentence and the whole composition stands the paragraph. It is a composition in TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... miniature because it meets the same requirement of unity, content and message (see "Studies of Written English" in Units One, Two, Three).

A group of paragraphs constitutes more complex compo­sitions, such TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... as essays, short stories, accounts, letters, class-compositions as a special exercise in written communication, etc.

Essay is a short prose composition (5—20 pages) on a particular subject. Usually it is TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of explanatory and argumen­tative nature (see "Studies" in Unit One). For instance, the passage "Teacher Training in Great Britain" (see Unit Five) as well as "Introducing London" (see Unit Three) is TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... close to a formal essay. "What's Your Line" (see Unit One) and the first letter of Judy describing her college experience (see Unit Five) may be classed with informal essays on teaching.

Unity TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... of essays is built up around the central idea. Any addition of unimportant details or afterthoughts destroy the unity.

Coherence is achieved through skilful arrangement of details according to the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... following rules: a) present your ma­terial from "the general to the particular"; b) try the order of enumeration, that is, arrange several points of view accord­ing to their importance TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., or interest, or order of happening; c) use key-words as connectives and transitions.

The following is a brief list of transitional words and phrases that help to connect paragraphs of an TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... essay: on the one (other) хэнд, in the second place, on the contrary, at the same time, in paricular, in spite of this, in like manner, in contrast to this, in the meantime, of course TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения..., in conclusion to sum up, in addition, morepver, finally, after all, and truly, in other words.

Emphasis is achieved with the help оf concrete details. Avoid generalities and abstractions. Before writing an TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... essay consider the following:

1. Study the materials about the topic.

2. Think of the main idea you are going to develop in your essay.

3. Write an informal essay "Looking at TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the Map of Rus­sia."

4. Make a plan (topic plan, sentence plan, paragraph plan).

5. Develop the paragraph plan into an essay according to the rules of unity, coherence and emphasis.

6. Go over the essay for TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... "self-editing" purpose and see if it meets the main requirement of good writing — clarity of communication.

Assignments:

1. Маke an outline of the passage "The British Isles" and analyse TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... it from the point of view of its unity, coherence and emphasis.

2. Write a formal essay "Looking at the Map of the British Isles" according to your own plan.

^ LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the texts "Industrial and Agricultural Districts in Great Britain", "The English Landscape", "Looking at the Map of Russia". Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat the texts following the model.

2. Without looking back at TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... the texts, decide whether the following statements are true or false.

3. Extend the sentences according to the model.

4. Write a spelling-translation test; a) translate the phrases into English; b) check TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... them with the key.

5. Listen to the text "The Lake District" and write it as a dictation. Check it with the key.

6. Listen to the poem "England" by G. G. Byron. Mark the TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... stresses and tunes. Learn it by heart .

7. Listen to the text "The Isle of Man" or some other text discribing a part of Great Britain. Make a summary of the main TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... points of the passage.

^ CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

I. Quiz "Across the Globe".

Answer the following questions. It is accuracy and amount of Information that count when choosing the winner:

1. What is the longest TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... river in the world?

2. In what way do the western shores of the British Isles differ from the easten shores?

3. What are the smallest countries in the world?

4. What TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... language is spoken in Holland?

5. What are the Seven Wonders of the world?

6. What is the capital of Australia?

7. What are the Rockies and where are they found?

8. What is the coldest area in Russia TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения...?

9. What is the national emblem of Canada?

10. Where is the city of Honolulu situated?

^ II. Quiz "Across the British Isles".

Answer the following questions. In this case it is resourcefulness TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... and sense of humour that count when choosing the winner:

1. What is the main difference between the Cumbrians and the Cambrians?

2. Do Englishmen bring coal to Newcastle?

3. Do Englishmen go up or TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... down to get to Edinburgh?

4. What is the difference between Loch Ness and Loch Lomond?

5. What colour is predominant on the map of the British Isles?

(Think twice before answering. There TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... is Greenwich in the South, you may spot Greenock in the North, search the map first.)

6. Which is closer to London, Oxford or Cambridge?

7. What is the difference between Portsmouth and Ply­mouth?

8. What TOPIC: GEOGRAPHY - Основной курс (Essential Course). Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation). Упражнения... is Liverpool famous for?


tomskaya-oblast-napravit-na-remont-zhilya-veteranov-15-mln-rublej-rossijskaya-blagotvoritelnost-v-zerkale-smi.html
tomskaya-regionalnaya-obshestvennaya-organizaciya-federaciya-tyazheloj-atletiki.html
tomskie-vlasti-usilyat-poliv-ulic-chtobi-spravitsya-so-smogom-informacionnoe-agentstvo-ria-novosti-sibir-25072012.html